But goal n. 3 (standing with help) before crawling. Almost 9% of children have also crossed the line. 4 (assisted walking) before crawling. Another 10% of children mixed the order in more exotic ways and about 4% never returned to their hands and knees (WHO 2006a).
Other studies show even more children who never crawled, children who were healthy and walked within a normal window. Therefore, there is no perfect sequence of motor development milestones that every child should adhere to. As motor development experts Karen Adolph and John Franchak (2016) explain:
"The milestone tables show an orderly, age-related march through a series of stages, but the developmental paths may be different and individual children may not adhere strictly to the normative sequence derived from the early Middle Ages."
Why is there such diversity?
Some are cultural. For example, in some African countries, parents actively train their children to sit, stand and walk. They give children a lot of exercise and they seem to be accelerating direct development of posture (Super 1976; Bril and Sabatier 1986; Karasik et al. 2015; Adolph and Robinson 2015).
Experimental work supports this idea.
There is a "gradual relapse" in children: if you hold the baby so that his legs fall to the ground, the baby will act spontaneously, long before he is able to support his weight. Autumn is usually lost over time, but not when children have the opportunity to train their activities daily and the goal is to walk (without assistance) at a very young age (Zelazo 1983). Thus, we have evidence that parental practices can accelerate the pace of motor development. On the contrary, parents can slow it down. In places where parents have free access - or actively prevent children from moving during the day - more is needed to reach certain motor milestones.
And what about scanning? Environmental factors also play an important role here.
In places like the United States, parents expect children to crawl and give them the opportunity to do so. But this is not always the case and it was probably not the case with our hunting ancestors.
Outdoor crawling would not be a good idea - the lives of predators and hunter-gatherers do not inspire their children to crawl. As I explain in this creep development guide, it's not uncommon for babies to refuse to crawl with their hands and knees and prefer other forms of avoidance, such as latching onto the buttocks or rolling from place to place. And genetics clearly influence the motor phases.
When the researchers looked at the effects of culture and parenting, they found that genetic factors have a major impact on the timing of motor milestones.
The brothers did not achieve the milestones at the same time, although they grew up in similar conditions. Individual differences in mood, body fat composition, and other traits - which are influenced by genes - can affect a child's activity patterns, leading some children to spend more time learning fine motor skills.
And other engine milestones?
the ability to grasp a small object between the thumb and the foreword. Babies usually know how to drink from a cup and can also eat with a spoon.
Their efforts, however, are a great shame. If you give them a loaded spoon, they are more likely to lift it at the end of the bowl, not by the handle. They also attack the spoon with their fist, not with a firm grip (from thumb to index finger
At the age of 14 months, children are wiser. They can still hold a spoon, but they have learned to hold it by the handle (van Roon et al. 2003).
And during this 12-month period, children can use stationery to draw random-looking marks and dots.
Let the kids beat.
It is audible and mobile, but scientists think that children develop important motor skills when they touch and strike an object (Kahrs et al. 2012). Make sure the item is safe for your child!
Support free play and make yourself a visible, agile and attractive teammate.
Children train more - and spend more time interacting with things - when we give them time and space to play freely (Adolf and Koch 2019). In children at 4 and 6 months, most children develop the ability to hold and shake the toy. They also develop the ability to move things back and forth.
In 18 months, this effort can be more controlled and organized and can have straight and zigzag lines (Dunst and Gorman 2009). More complex patterns - geometric shapes and figures with recognizable features (such as foot creatures) - develop slowly and can be seen in three-year-olds (Dunst and Gorman 2009).
What can parents do to support motor development?
Give your baby plenty of "belly". As stated in this article, "belly time" is clearly important. Children develop better muscle control when they spend time supervising the abdomen. It is useful for increasing neck strength and helps children develop the ability to roll, crawl and sit (Kuo et al. 2008).
Help children practice the same posture.